RECENT POSTS

Opposed Piston Engine (High Quality)

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An opposed-piston engine is a reciprocating internal combustion engine in which each cylinder has a piston at both ends, and no cylinder head. In 1882 James Atkinson developed the Atkinson cycle, a variant of the four stroke Otto cycle. The first implementation of this was arranged as an opposed piston engine, the Atkinson differential engine

Two-stroke combustion cycle:
  • A two-stroke engine produces twice as many power strokes per revolution as its four-stroke equivalent. This advantage leads to smaller displacement engines for similar performance, and lower in-cylinder pressure to lower emissions compared to four-stroke conventional engines.
  • In the past, these advantages were balanced by some well-documented shortcomings of two-stroke engines, which limited their scope of use. High hydrocarbon emissions (due to carburetion and over-scavenging) and excessive oil consumption (due to oil-fuel mixing in spark-ignition engines and port oil ejection in compression ignition, direct fuel injection engines) are difficult issues to tackle in these type of engines.
Two-Stroke Diesel Engine
  • The engineers and scientists started Achates Power in 2004 with the audacious idea that innovation and modern technology could transform the proven and record-setting two-stroke opposed-piston engines of the past into the clean and efficient engines of the future.
  • This advantage reduces the fuel used per cycle, resulting in shorter and leaner combustion for optimally phased energy release – all enhancing engine efficiency.
  • Achates Power’s extensive prototyping capabilities and state-of-the-art test facilities are instrumental to confirm at every step the validity of our analytical approach and results.
  • The proprietary cylinder and piston designs achieve unprecedented improvements in combustion efficiency and oil consumption to meet the most stringent emissions regulation. In conjunction with the thermal efficiency advantage inherent to opposed-piston engines, our designs realize significant reductions in fuel consumption over conventional four-stroke compression ignition engines. Based on its unique technology, Achates Power is creating clean, more fuel efficient and lower cost engines for the 21st Century.
Compression Ignition Engine:
Compression ignition engines achieve superior thermal efficiency by the virtue of their higher expansion ratio, inherent fuel-lean combustion and reduced pumping losses.
Although the very first compression ignition engine, designed by Rudolph Diesel in 1894, ran on pure peanut oil, today’s compression ignition engines rely on diesel fuel, thanks to its unique combination of qualities:
  • Energy dense, takes less volume and weight in vehicles
  • Clean, with the recent introduction of ultra-low sulphur diesel fuel
  • Widely available, throughout the world
  • Most cost-effective, in the current economic conditions
Compression ignition with diesel fuel is therefore the combination of choice for the commercial transportation of goods and people on road, rail and water. In fact:
  • In the US, 25% of the fuel used by cars, trucks and buses is diesel fuel
  • In China and India, diesel represents 2/3 of the fuel used for road transportation
  • One out of two passenger cars registered in Europe is compression ignition/diesel powered
Improving further the efficiency of compression ignition engines will reap huge environmental and economic benefits.
And when the cost to use fossil fuels becomes too high, improved compression ignition engines will be ready for the renewable fuels of tomorrow. Already, in 2008, the U.S. produced 691 million gallons of biodiesel(3). Second generation renewable compression ignition fuels from soybeans, biomass, algae and other sources promise that more efficient compression ignition engines are key to a cleaner and safer future for transportation.

Working Diagram: 


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➨ Apparently it can have better thermodynamic properties which leads to better fuel efficiency. There are a bunch of different tradeoffs with maintenance and engine size too, but it really depends on the specific model.

ARC FLASH Hazard - Flashover

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We know that when two conductors are separated and a strong enough field is present between them, arcing occurs. An arc flash is the uncontrolled release of energy when a phase conductor comes into contact with ground or two phase conductors get shorted.
It becomes a hazard when a large enough energy is released in a short enough duration of time. 

➤ Arc flash is most likely to occur during maintenance activities, when a person might accidentally short two points at different potentials.

IEEE 1584 – Guide for performing arc flash hazard calculations and calculation of incident energy.

  • Category 0: 0 - 1.2 calories/cm2
  • Category 1: 1.2 - 4 calories/cm2
  • Category 2: 4 - 8 calories/cm2
  • Category 3: 8 – 25 calories/cm2
  • Category 4: 25 - 40 calories/cm2
➠ The first line of defence to any hazard is by engineering solutions to minimize the likelihood or consequence of the event occurring.
➠ Arc flash incident energy at a point is mainly dependent on three things – fault current, fault duration and distance of that point from the point of fault.
➠ To minimize fault current, we can have fuses. Protection settings can be set to low to minimize the tripping time thus limiting the fault duration (although this may result in false trips). 
➠ We can reduce the incident energy (say at a point outside a MCC) by providing ‘other means’ for the arc flash energy to get dissipated. So, if we provide a vent on top of a MCC, the arc flash energy has more space to dissipate energy than just going straight out. This would reduce the arc flash boundary (defined as the point at which there is a 50% chance for an unprotected person to get 2nd degree burns).

The object of this exercise is to raise your awareness of arc flash hazard.

  • If you leave equipment alone it is unlikely to arc, and due to probability, if it does, it is most likely that anybody is there.
  • You are right, arc flash is more likely to happen when individuals are there, because of the very activities they are performing, be it because they cause a short directly, or because there is a faulty component which is disturbed by their activities.
  • First line of defence is not to work on or near live equipment
  • Second line of defence is in the design as you can never design out the hazard, only reduce it.
  • Last line of defence is PPE.
  • I was at an ABB Seminar the last couple of days and I came across this:
  • Ultra-Fast Earthing Switch (UFES) – It is a sacrificial device to protect equipment in the event of an arc fault. What this essentially does is convert the arc fault into a “bolted” fault, by connecting the phase to earth in 2ms, so that fault current flows through this device instead of the actual fault location. It has a micro-gas generator (which are also used to inflate air bags in vehicles), which ruptures, resulting in the moving contact travelling like a bullet to bond with the fixed contact and created a bolted fault.

➤The device costs around $10k and the replacement cost is somewhere around $4K. Probably a lot cheaper than having to replace the whole switchgear after an arc fault occurs.

RFID CARD READER WITH ARDUINO, RFID-RC522 and LCD 16x2



Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. The tags contain electronically stored information. Passive tags collect energy from a nearby RFID reader's interrogating radio waves. Active tags have a local power source such as a battery and may operate at hundreds of meters from the RFID reader. Unlike a barcode, the tag need not be within the line of sight of the reader, so it may be embedded in the tracked object. RFID is one method for Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC).
RFID tags are used in many industries, for example, an RFID tag attached to an automobile during production can be used to track its progress through the assembly line; RFID-tagged pharmaceuticals can be tracked through warehouses; and implanting RFID microchips in livestock and pets allows positive identification of animals.
Since RFID tags can be attached to cash, clothing, and possessions, or implanted in animals and people, the possibility of reading personally-linked information without consent has raised serious privacy concerns. These concerns resulted in standard specifications development addressing privacy and security issues. ISO/IEC 18000 and ISO/IEC 29167 use on-chip cryptography methods for un-traceability, tag and reader authentication, and over-the-air privacy. ISO/IEC 20248 specifies a digital signature data structure for RFID and barcodes providing data, source and read method authenticity. This work is done within ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Automatic identification and data capture techniques.
COMPONENTS:
  • RFID RC-522
  • ARDUINO UNO
  • LED
  • BUZZER
  • JUMPPER WIRES
  • BATTERY (9V WITH CAP)
  • PLUG (5 x 2.1)
  • LCD (16 x 2)
  • ADDITIONAL CONNECTION PINS
  • RISISTANCE (220 ohm) (x 2)
  • VARIABLE RESISTOR (10 K)
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:


ARDUINO CODE:
  • /*------------------------------------------
  •   RFID CARD READER 
  •   By https://nonstopengineering.blogspot.com/
  •   Using Arduino,RFID-RC522 and LCD 16x2
  •   ------------------------------------------*/

  • #include <EEPROM.h>  //Library To read and write PICC's UIDs from/to EEPROM
  • #include <SPI.h>      //Library  RC522 Module uses SPI protocol
  • #include <MFRC522.h> //Library  RC522 Module
  • #include <LiquidCrystal.h> //Library  for LCD Display

  • boolean match = false; // initialize card match to false
  • boolean programMode = false; // initialize programming mode to false
  • int successRead; // Variable integer to keep if we have Successful Read from Reader
  • byte storedCard[4];   // Stores an ID read from EEPROM
  • byte readCard[4];           // Stores scanned ID read from RFID Module
  • byte masterCard[4]; // Stores master card's ID read from EEPROM
  • #define SS_PIN 10
  • #define RST_PIN 9
  • MFRC522 mfrc522(SS_PIN, RST_PIN);  // Create MFRC522 instance.
  • LiquidCrystal lcd(7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2); //Initializing LCD PINS as (RS,EN,D4,D5,D6,D7)
  • void setup() {
  •   // put your setup code here, to run once:
  •   Serial.begin(9600);  // Initialize serial communications with PC
  •   lcd.begin(16, 2);    //Initializing LCD 16x2
  •   pinMode(8, OUTPUT);  //LED and Buzzer PIN OUT
  •   SPI.begin();           // MFRC522 Hardware uses SPI protocol
  •   mfrc522.PCD_Init();    // Initialize MFRC522 Hardware
  •   mfrc522.PCD_SetAntennaGain(mfrc522.RxGain_max);
  •   if (EEPROM.read(1) != 1) {  // Look EEPROM if Master Card defined, EEPROM address 1 holds if defined
  •     Serial.println("No Master Card Defined"); //When no Master Card in Your EEROM (Serial Display)
  •     Serial.println("Scan A PICC to Define as Master Card");
  •     lcd.clear();
  •     lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
  •     lcd.println("SET MASTERCARD   "); //When no Master Card in Your EEROM (LCD Display)
  •     lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
  •     lcd.println("SCAN A PICC....."); //Scan any RFID CARD to set Your Master Card in Your EEROM (LCD Display)
  •     delay(1500);
  •     do {
  •       successRead = getID(); // sets successRead to 1 when we get read from reader otherwise 0
  •     }
  •     while (!successRead); //the program will not go further while you not get a successful read
  •     for ( int j = 0; j < 4; j++ ) { // Loop 4 times
  •       EEPROM.write( 2 + j, readCard[j] ); // Write scanned PICC's UID to EEPROM, start from address 3
  •     }
  •     EEPROM.write(1, 1); //Write to EEPROM we defined Master Card.
  •     Serial.println("Master Card Defined");
  •     
  •   }
  •   Serial.println("Master Card's UID");
  •   for ( int i = 0; i < 4; i++ ) {     // Read Master Card's UID from EEPROM
  •     masterCard[i] = EEPROM.read(2 + i); // Write it to masterCard
  •     Serial.print(masterCard[i], HEX); //Master Card only view in serial
  •      Serial.println("Waiting PICCs to bo scanned :)"); 
  •   }
  •   //WAITING TO SCAN THE RFID CARDS:
  •   Serial.println("");
  •   Serial.println("Waiting PICCs to bo scanned :)");
  •   lcd.clear();
  •   lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
  •   lcd.println("WAITING         ");
  •   lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
  •   lcd.println("FOR PICC....     ");
  •   delay(1500);
  • }
  • void loop() {
  •   lcd.clear();
  •   lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
  •   lcd.print("      SWIPE");
  •   lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
  •   lcd.print("    YOUR CARD");

  •  /* 
  •  if (digitalRead(BUTTON) == HIGH);                     //To Delete the EEROM USE the below command just run it
  •   {
  •   // for (int i = 0 ; i < EEPROM.length() ; i++) {
  •   // EEPROM.write(i, 0);
  •   // }
  •   // }                                     */
  •   do {
  •     successRead = getID(); // sets successRead to 1 when we get read from reader otherwise 0
  •     if (programMode) {
  •       // Program Mode cycles through RGB waiting to read a new card
  •     }
  •     else {
  •    }}
  •   while (!successRead); //the program will not go further while you not get a successful read
  •   if (programMode) {
  •     if ( isMaster(readCard) ) {  //If master card scanned again exit program mode
  •       Serial.println("This is Master Card");
  •       Serial.println("Exiting Program Mode");
  •       lcd.clear();
  •       lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
  •       lcd.print("EXITING FROM");
  •       lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
  •       lcd.print("MASTERCARD MODE");
  •       delay(2000);
  •       programMode = false;
  •       return;
  •     }
  •     else {
  •       if ( findID(readCard) ) { //If scanned card is known delete it
  •         Serial.println("I know this PICC, so removing");
  •         lcd.clear();
  •         lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
  •         lcd.print("AVAILABLE!");
  •         lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
  •         lcd.print("SO DELETING.....");
  •         delay(5000);
  •         deleteID(readCard);
  •         Serial.println("-----------------------------");
  •       }
  •       else {                    // If scanned card is not known add it
  •         Serial.println("I do not know this PICC, adding...");
  •         lcd.clear();
  •         lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
  •         lcd.print("Card no:");
  •         lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
  •         lcd.print(readCard[0], HEX);
  •         lcd.print(readCard[1], HEX);
  •         lcd.print(readCard[2], HEX);
  •         lcd.print(readCard[3], HEX);
  •         lcd.print(readCard[4], HEX);
  •         delay(4000);
  •         lcd.clear();
  •         lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
  •         lcd.print("NOT AVAILABLE");
  •         lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
  •         lcd.print("SO ADDING.......");
  •         delay(5000);
  •         writeID(readCard);
  •         Serial.println("-----------------------------");
  •       }} }
  •   else {
  •     if ( isMaster(readCard) ) {  // If scanned card's ID matches Master Card's ID enter program mode
  •       programMode = true;
  •       Serial.println("Welcome to Mastercard Mode");
  •       lcd.clear();
  •       lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
  •       lcd.print("WELCOME TO");
  •       lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
  •       lcd.print("MASTERCARD MODE");
  •       delay(3000);
  •       int count = EEPROM.read(0); // Read the first Byte of EEPROM that
  •       Serial.print("I have ");    // stores the number of ID's in EEPROM
  •       Serial.print(count);
  •       Serial.print(" record(s) on EEPROM");
  •       Serial.println("");
  •       Serial.println("Scan a PICC to ADD or REMOVE");
  •       Serial.println("-----------------------------");
  •       lcd.clear();
  •       lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
  •       lcd.print("SCAN PICC TO");
  •       lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
  •       lcd.print("ADD OR REMOVE...");
  •       delay(2500);
  •     }
  •     else {
  •       if ( findID(readCard) ) {        // If not, see if the card is in the EEPROM
  •         Serial.println("Acces Granted");
  •         lcd.clear();
  •         lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
  •         lcd.print(" CONGRATULATION");
  •         lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
  •         lcd.print(" ACCESS GRANTED");
  •         digitalWrite(8, HIGH);
  •         delay(1500);
  •         digitalWrite(8, LOW);
  •         lcd.clear();
  •       }
  •       else {        // If not, show that the ID was not valid
  •         Serial.println("Access Denied");
  •         for (int abcd = 0; abcd < 6; abcd++)
  •         {
  •           lcd.clear();
  •           lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
  •           lcd.print("     SORRY");
  •           lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
  •           lcd.print("  ACCESS DENIED");
  •           digitalWrite(8, HIGH);
  •           delay(700);
  •           digitalWrite(8, LOW);
  •           lcd.clear();
  •           lcd.print("   YOU'RE NOT  ");
  •           lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
  •           lcd.print("   AUTHORIZED   ");
  •           delay(700);
  •         }
  •         lcd.clear();
  •       }}}}
  • int getID() {
  •   // Getting ready for Reading PICCs
  •   if ( ! mfrc522.PICC_IsNewCardPresent()) { //If a new PICC placed to RFID reader continue
  •     return 0;
  •   }
  •   if ( ! mfrc522.PICC_ReadCardSerial()) { //Since a PICC placed get Serial and continue
  •     return 0;
  •   }
  •   // There are Mifare PICCs which have 4 byte or 7 byte UID care if you use 7 byte PICC
  •   // I think we should assume every PICC as they have 4 byte UID
  •   // Until we support 7 byte PICCs

  •   Serial.println("Scanning PICC's UID.........");
  •   lcd.clear();
  •   lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
  •   lcd.print("SCANNING");
  •   lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
  •   lcd.print("PICC's UID.....");
  •   delay(2000);
  •   for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {  //
  •     readCard[i] = mfrc522.uid.uidByte[i];
  •     Serial.print(readCard[i], HEX);
  •   }
  •   Serial.println("");
  •   mfrc522.PICC_HaltA(); // Stop reading
  •   return 1;
  • }
  • boolean isMaster( byte test[] ) {
  •   if ( checkTwo( test, masterCard ) )
  •     return true;
  •   else
  •     return false;
  • }

  • boolean checkTwo ( byte a[], byte b[] ) {
  •   if ( a[0] != NULL ) // Make sure there is something in the array first
  •     match = true; // Assume they match at first
  •   for ( int k = 0; k < 4; k++ ) { // Loop 4 times
  •     if ( a[k] != b[k] ) // IF a != b then set match = false, one fails, all fail
  •       match = false;
  •   }
  •   if ( match ) { // Check to see if if match is still true
  •     return true; // Return true
  •   }
  •   else  {
  •     return false; // Return false
  •   }}
  • boolean findID( byte find[] ) {
  •   int count = EEPROM.read(0); // Read the first Byte of EEPROM that
  •   for ( int i = 1; i <= count; i++ ) {  // Loop once for each EEPROM entry
  •     readID(i); // Read an ID from EEPROM, it is stored in storedCard[4]
  •     if ( checkTwo( find, storedCard ) ) { // Check to see if the storedCard read from EEPROM
  •       return true;
  •       break; // Stop looking we found it
  •     }
  •     else {  // If not, return false
  •     }}
  •   return false;
  • }
  • void readID( int number ) {
  •   int start = (number * 4 ) + 2; // Figure out starting position
  •   for ( int i = 0; i < 4; i++ ) { // Loop 4 times to get the 4 Bytes
  •     storedCard[i] = EEPROM.read(start + i); // Assign values read from EEPROM to array
  •   }
  • }
  • void deleteID( byte a[] ) {
  •   if ( !findID( a ) ) { // Before we delete from the EEPROM, check to see if we have this card!
  •     failedWrite(); // If not
  •   }
  •   else {
  •     int num = EEPROM.read(0); // Get the numer of used spaces, position 0 stores the number of ID cards
  •     int slot; // Figure out the slot number of the card
  •     int start;// = ( num * 4 ) + 6; // Figure out where the next slot starts
  •     int looping; // The number of times the loop repeats
  •     int j;
  •     int count = EEPROM.read(0); // Read the first Byte of EEPROM that stores number of cards
  •     slot = findIDSLOT( a ); //Figure out the slot number of the card to delete
  •     start = (slot * 4) + 2;
  •     looping = ((num - slot) * 4);
  •     num--; // Decrement the counter by one
  •     EEPROM.write( 0, num ); // Write the new count to the counter
  •     for ( j = 0; j < looping; j++ ) { // Loop the card shift times
  •       EEPROM.write( start + j, EEPROM.read(start + 4 + j)); // Shift the array values to 4 places earlier in the EEPROM
  •     }
  •     for ( int k = 0; k < 4; k++ ) { //Shifting loop
  •       EEPROM.write( start + j + k, 0);
  •     }
  •     successDelete();
  •   }}
  •   //For Failed to add the card:
  • void failedWrite() {

  •   Serial.println("something wrong with Card");
  •   lcd.clear();
  •   lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
  •   lcd.print("SOMETHING WRONG");
  •   lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
  •   lcd.print("WITH CARD");
  •   delay(2000);
  • }
  • //For Sucessfully Deleted:
  • void successDelete() {
  •   Serial.println("Succesfully removed");
  •   lcd.clear();
  •   lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
  •   lcd.print("SUCCESFULLY");
  •   lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
  •   lcd.print("REMOVED");
  •   delay(2000);
  • }
  • int findIDSLOT( byte find[] ) {
  •   int count = EEPROM.read(0); // Read the first Byte of EEPROM that
  •   for ( int i = 1; i <= count; i++ ) { // Loop once for each EEPROM entry
  •     readID(i); // Read an ID from EEPROM, it is stored in storedCard[4]
  •     if ( checkTwo( find, storedCard ) ) { // Check to see if the storedCard read from EEPROM
  •       // is the same as the find[] ID card passed
  •       return i; // The slot number of the card
  •       break; // Stop looking we found it
  •     }
  •   }
  • }
  • //For Sucessfully Added:
  • void successWrite() {

  •   Serial.println("Succesfully added");
  •   lcd.clear();
  •   lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
  •   lcd.print("SUCCESFULLY");
  •   lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
  •   lcd.print("ADDED");
  •   delay(2000);
  • }
  • //For Adding card to EEROM:
  • void writeID( byte a[] ) {
  •   if ( !findID( a ) ) { // Before we write to the EEPROM, check to see if we have seen this card before!
  •     int num = EEPROM.read(0); // Get the numer of used spaces, position 0 stores the number of ID cards
  •     int start = ( num * 4 ) + 6; // Figure out where the next slot starts
  •     num++; // Increment the counter by one
  •     EEPROM.write( 0, num ); // Write the new count to the counter
  •     for ( int j = 0; j < 4; j++ ) { // Loop 4 times
  •       EEPROM.write( start + j, a[j] ); // Write the array values to EEPROM in the right position
  •     }
  •     successWrite();
  •   }
  •   else {
  •     failedWrite();
  •   }
  • }


ARDUINO CODE FILE → CLICK HERE

WORKING:






Sonar Radar System using Arduino


Although they rely on two fundamentally different types of wave transmission, Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR) and Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR) both are remote sensingsystems with important military, scientific and commercial applications. RADAR sends out electromagnetic waves, while active SONAR transmits acoustic (i.e., sound) waves. In both systems, these waves return echoes from certain features or targets that allow the determination of important properties and attributes of the target (i.e., shape, size, speed, distance, etc.). Because electromagnetic waves are strongly attenuated (diminished) in water , RADAR signals are mostly used for ground or atmospheric observations. Because SONAR signals easily penetrate water, they are ideal for navigation and measurement under water.

COMPONENTS:

  • SERVO
  • ARDUINO
  • ULTRASONIC (HC-SR04)
  • Connecting wires.

ULTRASONIC (HC-SR04)The HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Sensor is a very affordable proximity/distance sensor that has been used mainly for object avoidance in various robotics projects . It essentially gives your Arduino eyes / spacial awareness and can prevent your robot from crashing or falling off a table. It has also been used in turret applications, water level sensing, and even as a parking sensor. This simple project will use the HC-SR04 sensor with an Arduino and a Processing sketch to provide a neat little interactive display on your computer screen.
SERVOA servomotor is a rotary actuator or linear actuator that allows for precise control of angular or linear position, velocity and acceleration. It consists of a suitable motor coupled to a sensor for position feedback.
ARDUINOArduino is a computer hardware and software company, project, and user community that designs and manufactures microcontroller kits for building digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and control objects in the physical world.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

ARDUINO CODE:
  • /*------------------------------------------
  •   Sonar Radar System
  •   By https://nonstopengineering.blogspot.com/
  •   Using Arduino,Ultrasonic and Servo
  •   ------------------------------------------*/
  • #include <Servo.h> //Servo Library

  • const int trigPin = 9; //Initializing trigger pin
  • const int echoPin = 8; //Initializing echo pin
  • long duration;        
  • int distance;

  • Servo myServo; // Creating a servo object for controlling the servo motor

  • void setup() {
  •   pinMode(trigPin, OUTPUT); // Sets the trigPin as an Output
  •   pinMode(echoPin, INPUT); // Sets the echoPin as an Input
  •   Serial.begin(9600);     //Sets Baud rate for Serial communication
  •   myServo.attach(10); // Defines on which pin is the servo motor attached
  • }
  • void loop() {
  •   for(int a=0;a<=180;a++) // rotates the servo motor from 0 to 180 degrees
  •   {  
  •   myServo.write(a); //Sending stes to servo which servo should move
  •   delay(20);
  •   distance = Distance(); // Calls a function for calculating the distance measured by the Ultrasonic sensor for each degree
  •   Serial.print(a); // Sends the current degree into the Serial Port
  •   Serial.print(","); // Sends addition character right next to the previous value needed later in the Processing IDE for indexing
  •   Serial.println(distance); // Sends the distance value into the Serial Port
  •   }
  •   for(int b=180;b>0;b--) //   Rversing rotation from 180 to 0 degrees
  •   {  
  •   myServo.write(b); 
  •   delay(20);
  •   distance = Distance();
  •   Serial.print(b);
  •   Serial.print(",");
  •   Serial.println(distance);
  •   }
  • }

  • int Distance() // Function for calculating the distance measured by the Ultrasonic sensor
  •   digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);  // Sets the trigPin on LOW state for 2 micro seconds
  •   delayMicroseconds(2); 
  •   digitalWrite(trigPin, HIGH); // Sets the trigPin on HIGH state for 10 micro seconds
  •   delayMicroseconds(10); 
  •   digitalWrite(9, LOW);
  •   duration = pulseIn(echoPin, HIGH); // Reads the echoPin, returns the sound wave travel time in microseconds
  •   distance= duration*0.034/200; //Converting distance into meters
  •   return distance;
  • }
ARDUINO FILE → CLICK HERE.

WORKING:


Designing of Dipole Antenna

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The most commonly used antenna is the dipole antenna used for RF with the most common applications being old tv transmissions. Widely used on its own, it is also incorporated into other RF antenna designs as well, as the driven element. The calculations for an antenna might be complex, a simple dipole antenna however is pretty easy to design. The in-depth analysis to increase the gain and other parameters however are a different struggle.


DIPOLE ANTENNA BASICS:

The two poles/terminals of the antenna are used as either transmitters or receivers based on the usage. The parameters of the signal cause the signal to be transmitted from the antenna.

At the transmitting end, the signal is fed to the antenna which is split in the middle, to accommodate the feeder. Similarly, at the receiving end, the split is used to take power from the receiver. The length of the antenna is carefully calculated before designing one for your application. It is proportional to the wavelength of your signal in question depending on the type of antenna and application.
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The length of most commonly used, half wave dipole antenna is half the wavelength of your signal in question. This resonates with the signal where the electrical length is again half a wavelength long.

As the name suggests, the two parts of the antenna are conductive and can be easily designed from metal wires. These are fed by a signal source for the transmitter or a power source at the reception end. The form of transmission of signal from or to the antenna leaves for a lot of designs. Let’s take a look at some of the variations that might suit your applications.

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TYPES OF DIPOLE:

Some of the variations of the dipole antenna could be
  • Half wave dipole antenna: This is the most common type of antenna with length of about half the wavelength of the signal.
  • Multiple half waves dipole antenna: Odd multiple of half wavelengths long dipole antenna can also be used if required.
  • Folded dipole antenna: While still retaining the length between the ends of half a wavelength, an additional length of conductor connects the two ends together i.e. the antenna is folded back on itself.
  • Short dipole: This would be the sortest variant of the dipole antenna. The length if the antenna is much smaller than the half wavelength. However, the feed impedance starts to rise and its response is less dependent upon frequency changes.The reduced length has other advantages.
  • Non-resonant dipole: Non-resonance in an antenna helps in operating of the antenna over a very wide bandwidth. It can also be operated away from its resonant frequency and fed with a high impedance feeder.

DIPOLE ANTENNA AND VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION:

The values of parameters on a radiating element vary on a dipole. The is due to the standing wave phenomenon, which form along the length of the dipole.

Both the current and voltage on the dipole antenna vary in a sinusoidal manner, meaning that there may be other peaks and troughs along the length of the radiating sections dependent upon their length.

Basic Concepts about Antenna Design

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Antenna design begins by understanding your transmission requirements. You need to know the wavelength / frequency of the signal for the antenna, before beginning work on antenna design. The next step is understanding the antenna type that would suit your application. Moreover certain applications would require several antenna and this may cause a confusion for novices.

A LIST OF CURRENTLY USED ANTENNA:
A detailed list of antennas has been mentioned below for your reference. This list is being further updated on a regular basis.

Monopole Antenna                       Helical Antenna                      Log-Periodic Dipole
Dipole Antenna                                 Yagi-Uda                                 Slot Antenna
Short-Dipole                                 Spiral Antenna                     Cavity-Backed Slot
Half-wave dipole                          Corner Reflector                          Horn Antenna
Broadband Dipole                      Parabolic Reflector                      Vivaldi Antenna
Folded Dipole                                 Microstrip patch                    Slotted Waveguide
Loop Antenna                              Planar Inverted-F                            Inverted-F
Cloverleaf Antenna                               Bow-Tie                         Antenna in wearable

PARAMETERS IN ANTENNA DESIGN:

All of these and more are being used in some or the other application around us. However designing any of them would involve understanding parameters and suitability for a particular application. Some parameters involved with antenna design besides basic aesthetics are the antenna resonance point or the operating frequency, and the antenna bandwidth or the range of frequencies over which this antenna would be expected to operate.

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Any RF antenna consists of capacitive and inductive components in it’s design. Hence this calls for tuning between the two. This brings in a resonance point into the picture. You might be familiar with the relation between capacitance and inductance in tank circuits.

By varying the values of inductance (L) and capacitance (C) in the circuit, we can tune the circuit to receive a particular frequency. This may sound simplistic in reality, However, practical implementation, shows that a circuit tuned at a particular frequency receives a range of frequencies. This brings in another factor the range of operation for the antenna.

Most RF antennas operate upto a certain range of frequencies about the resonant frequency. This becomes a necessity, as the signal transmitted at a particular frequency would undergo several modifications, during its travel. This allows a range of frequencies to pass through, but outside the range the reactance rises to levels that are often too high for satisfactory operation. Other characteristics of the antenna may also suffer due to the increased range of frequencies hence the tank circuit filters the frequencies about the central operating frequency.


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tank circuit

Impedance Bandwidth:

The impedance of an RF antenna stays same and does not change with its frequency. This causes an increase in the amount of reflected power. In case of a transmitting antenna, beyond a given level of reflected power, damage may occur to either the transmitter or the feeder. This would be a significant factor limiting the operating bandwidth of an antenna but not so much on the reception end.

As far as receiving is concerned the impedance changes of the antenna are not as critical as it will mean that the signal transfer from the antenna itself to the feeder is reduced and will cause the efficiency to fall.

In order to increase the bandwidth of an antenna there are a number of measures that can be taken for eg. using thicker conductors.

Basic concepts about EM waves

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Among the different types of electromagnetic waves, radio signals are used very widely in our lives. Cue in this widespread usage, they have a major effect on RF antennas themselves and RF antenna design.
RF, visible, ultra-violet and infrared all comprise electromagnetic waves differing from each other in wavelength and frequency. These are made of both electric and magnetic components, which are inseparable. Forming a 3D structure, the individual fields are at right angles to one another and to the direction of motion of the wave at the same time.

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EM wave field directions
In antennas,Basic electric fields generally result from voltage changes in RF radiated signal whereas the magnetic changes cue into the current flow. The electric field lines often run along the same axis as the RF antenna, spreading out as they move away. It is measured in terms of the change in potential, over a given distance, e.g. volts per meter, and is hence called field strength. Similarly on reception of a signal the magnetic changes would cause a current flow, resulting in an electric field, which in turn causes voltage changes on the antenna.

WAVE PROPERTIES:
Among the major concepts/properties of a wave, the first is its wavelength, measured as the distance between two similarly identical points. To resolve any confusion the previous line might have made, we can measure the wavelength from one peak to the peak, or one trough to the next. A peak is the highest or the positive maximum value, whereas a trough is the lowest or the negative highest value of the signal. Since these are easy to identify in a wave, the wavelength can be very easily calculated.

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EM wavelength
Frequency is another important concept/property of a wave. It can be calculated by the number of waves in a certain specified time period. Generally, this time period is taken as a second. The unit of frequency, Hertz, is named after the German scientist who discovered radio waves. Coming back to RF waves, the prefixes to frequencies Kilo, Mega, and Giga are often seen, since these are very high.

RF travel at the speed of light. For calculation purposes, it is considered at 300 million meters per second, whereas the exact value would be a little less.
Frequency-Wavelength Correlation Relating wavelength frequency and energy


FREQUENCY-WAVELENGTH CORRELATION
:
Frequency is often used as a measure of the signal. Frequency and wavelength are relate to each other by the below relation:
λ = c / f

where
  • λ is the wavelength, in meters
  • f is frequency, in Hertz
  • c is the speed of light, in meter / second
  • Field measurements
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Relating wavelength frequency and energy
FIELD MEASUREMENT:
Similar to a transformer, there is also an inductive field close to the RF antenna. This can often cause distortions in the original measurements in the nearby signals since this is not the intended signal. This often becomes a hassle with multiple antenna transmitting at close proximity. This causes interference at the receiving end of the antenna as well. Additionally, the wiring for electricity and other transfer might also cause signal distortions. The saving grace here would be the fact that, it starts to fade away after a couple of meters.

Theoretically speaking, the waves should be accepted by the antenna and we should have an output. However reality is not so simple. The waves are affected by polarization, resulting in some miscommunication of signal. RF antennas and the EM waves both undergo polarization.

For an electromagnetic wave, polarization is effectively the plane in which the electric wave vibrates. This is important when looking at antennas because they are sensitive to polarization, and generally only receive or transmit a signal with a particular polarization. In an antenna, polarization is in the same plane as the elements of the antenna. It is easy to determine since a horizontal antenna receives horizontally polarized signals and similarly for vertical antenna.

Matching the polarization becomes an important factor to have the best reception of signals. If the antenna polarization does not matches with that of the signal, there is a decrease in the level of signal by a factor of cosine of the angle between the polarization of the antenna and signal. If the two are cross polarization with one another, then theoretically signal reception should not be possible.

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However, some others factors have to be taken into consideration, when we look at real time signals. The final received signal is a combination of reflections from multiple surfaces, causing a change in polarization. Hence the final signal becomes a combination of various signals, with variations in parameters. This change is also observed in polarization of the signal as well.


WHAT IS POLARIZATION?
Since it is making such a big issue with EM waves, let’s look at it in simple terms. In simple terms, the ability of waves to oscillate in more than one direction can be termed as polarization. In an EM wave, both the electric and magnetic fields oscillate in different directions. Conventionally, the polarization of light refers to the changes of electric field. Depending on the direction of the oscillations, we have certain categorizations.
Polarization is an important parameter in areas of science dealing with transverse wave propagation, such as optics, seismology, radio, and microwaves. Especially impacted are technologies such as lasers, wireless and optical fiber telecommunications, and radar.


CLASSIFICATION:
To define and understand it properly, we have certain categories that a wave undergoes. A broad classification would be linear and circular. Linear polarization can be further subdivided into two categories, vertical and horizontal.

These are the simplest forms and are easy to understand. For eg. to generate a horizontal polarized wave, we could have an antenna axis horizontal to the earth. The electric field vector of the EM wave will be parallel to the earth. Similarly for a vector polarized EM wave, we could have an antenna vertical to the ground. The electric field vector is now perpendicular to the ground.

Circular polarization however is a little complex. A comparison for understanding, could be a signal propagating from a rotating antenna. The signal would appear to be helical, as seen from the axis. This can again go either way. As seen from the transmitting antenna, left winding spiral, is a left circular polarized, whereas a right winding spiral is a right circular polarized wave.

Another form is elliptical polarization. This would be more close to the real life situations of the signals. It occurs due to a mix of linear and circular polarized waves. A visualization for the wave would be the tip of the electric field vector tracing an elliptical path in propagation.


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RECEPTION AT ANTENNA:
At the reception end, the story is however not as ideal as theory. Since polarization requires setting up of antenna at the transmission end, same is true at the reception end. But unlike a linearly polarized antenna transmitting linearly polarized waves, a receiver can receive other polarized signals as well. Looks like a receiver is the AB+ of signals.

The factor to note however here is that, the signals received would be below 3 dB levels. Which would mean the signal would be very weak, and hence would not the best option to go for while designing a system. Similar is true for any signal reception. The signal reception is optimum for polarization match of wave and antenna.

 
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